Palpating the spleen There are many ways to palpate the spleen. Stand to the right side of the patient Expose the abdomen from the ribcage to the pubis symphysis Method Place the palm of the right hand on the right iliac fossa and move upward and laterally towards the left hypochondrium Palpate all the way […]

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Common changes in nails are Clubbing Koilonychia Onycholysis Abnormal color like yellow, blue Nail bed changes Splinter hemorrhages Lines or bands- Beaus, Mees lines Clubbing It is the increase in the angle between the nail and the nail bed. Place the two index fingers of the patient against each other , look for the diamond […]

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Examining muscle is fundamental in musculoskeletal conditions and neurology Muscles is examined in following 3 domains Nutrition of muscles Tone of muscles Power of muscles Nutrition of muscle Inspection Look for wasting or atrophy of muscles like deltoid or calf muscle Prominent bony prominences Prominent tendon ar foot and hand Palpation Soft and flabby muscle […]

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When you are presented with a CNS case, a quick look at the movements of the patient can guide you to the site of lesion. Look below for the nerve supply for different areas of the body Upper body C1 to C6- Neck flexion C1 to T1- Neck extension C3 to C5- Supply to diaphragm […]

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Monoplegia This is weakness of one limb when compared to the other. Always check the normal limb and then immediately check corresponding other limb Upper limb monoplegia Multiple sclerosis Encephalitis Poliomyelitis Mononeuropathy Brachial plexus lesion Lower limb monoplegia Multiple sclerosis Cauda equina syndrome Sciatic nerve palsy Prolapsed vertebral disc Hemiplegia This is the weakness of […]

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It is auscultating the patients chest in different fields hen the child speaks Method Ask the patient to repeat words like ‘Ninety Nine’ continuously in the same tone and voice depth No auscultate the lung in different area like upper lobe, middle lobe and lower lobe. Auscultate the same areas simultaneously, i.e once on the […]

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Differentiating different respiratory sounds can be asked in clinical exams Wheeze is the high pitch musical sound heard Characters Mostly heard in expiratory phase of respiration Indicates small airway obstruction Conditions Asthma Bronchitis Tropical eosinophilia Stridor This is a harsh hoarse sound which is low pitched Features Better heard in Inspiratory phase Indicates large airways […]

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Dyspnoea Uncomfortable awareness of breathing Tachypnoea Rapid breathing Seen in anxiety, fever, heart failure, acidosis Hyperventilation Increased depth of ventilation Seen in anxiety, Metabolic acidosis, infections Bradypnea Slow breathing rate Orthopnoea Breathless on lying down Seen in heart failure, asthma, pleural effusion Cheyne Stokes respiration Periods of rapid breathing and periods of pause Each phase […]

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This is one of the few feared ares in medicine. It is easier to remember if you make sure you write this below format repeatedly and use it every time you examine a patient Below is a brief note of headings for easy revision in exams. For detailed examination, look into individual articles. Look around […]

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