There are 2 main variations that can be seen. Kyphosis and scoliosis Kyphosis is backward bending of the vertebral column Scoliosis is lateral bending of the vertebral column Common Causes Congenital Ankylosing spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis Rickets Neurofibromatosis Friedrich’s ataxia Cerebral palsy Marfan syndrome Turners syndrome Method to diagnose scoliosis Request the child to remove their […]

Read More →

Features of Marfan syndrome It is a very common condition that can be presented in the musculoskeletal station You may be given the patient and asked to examine Look for the following clinical features Examination Kyphoscoliosis Anterior chest wall deformity- pectus excavation/ carinatum High arched palate Long slender fingers (Arachnodactyly) Cardiac findings- Mitral valve prolapse, […]

Read More →

Hypotonia Low muscle tone is a common finding. Remember the following points Causes of Hypotonia In newborns Anterior Horn cell disorders like Hypoxic-ischaemic myelopathy, Spinal muscular atrophy Congenital myelopathy like Charcot Marie Tooth disease Neuromuscular junction disorders like Congenital myasthenia Congenital myopathy like Nemaline myopathy Muscular dystrophy Syndromes- like Downs syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome, Hypothyroidism, […]

Read More →

Examining muscle is fundamental in musculoskeletal conditions and neurology Muscles is examined in following 3 domains Nutrition of muscles Tone of muscles Power of muscles Nutrition of muscle Inspection Look for wasting or atrophy of muscles like deltoid or calf muscle Prominent bony prominences Prominent tendon ar foot and hand Palpation Soft and flabby muscle […]

Read More →

  FEATURES Symptoms Irritable child with flabby muscles Delayed gross motor development Delayed dentition REcurrent respiratory and digestive tract infections Excess sweating Severe deficiency may present with Fits( especially in babies) Signs Head signs Craniotabes- seen at 1 year old due to soft bones Frontal and parietal bone bossing Widening Of sutures Delayed closure to […]

Read More →