Equipment Sterile catheter pack with following- Gallipot/ receiver. Swabs and Disposable towels Disposable pad Sterile gloves Appropriate catheter Sterile aesthetic lubrication jelly Specimen container 0.9% sodium chloride solution Alcohol rub Hypoallergenic tape Sterile water Syringe Plastic apron Drainage bag   PROCEDURE Explain the procedure to the patient and the parents Get the child in the […]

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DEFINITION Is the sudden onset of Gross hematuria Oedema Hypertension Renal insufficiency The most common cause of in children next is IgA nephropathy   AETIOLOGY- Follows infection of the throat or skin (Group A b-hemolytic streptococci).   CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Onset 1–2 wk after streptococcal infection. Oedema Hypertension Oliguria. Encephalopathy or heart failure due to hypertension […]

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Also called ‘Brittle Bone Disease’ This is a generalised, predominantly collagen-tissue disorder Leads to abnormal bone matrix and reduced bone strength causing bone fragility, fracture risk, bone deformity and linear growth deficiency   CLASSIFICATION Five major types (1 to 5) Autosomal dominant and recessive mutations noted Clinical findings Always differentiate it from Non-Accidental Injury Skeletal […]

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Types  a) Classical Inheritance- AD Major features   Skin hyperextensibility Widened atrophic scars Joint hypermobility   Minor features   Smooth velvety skin Molluscoid pseudotumors Subcutaneous spheroids Complications of joint hypermobility (sprains, subluxations/dislocations, pes planus) Muscle hypotonia Delayed gross motor development Easy bruising Tissue extensibility and fragility Postoperative hernia Positive family history     2) Hypermobility Inheritance- […]

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Definition  Hyperplasia of Adrenal gland Affects production of 3 main hormones- Cortisol, Aldosterone, Testosterone Cause Deficiency of enzymes in the synthetic pathway of Adrenal Cortex There are 2 types Classical type- due to the deficiency of enzyme 21-hydroxylase enzyme. Non Classical type Pathology In classical CAH There is a block in the production of cortisol […]

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It is the narrowing of the subglottic airway due to the malformed cricoid cartilage It is the most common congenital laryngeal abnormality It can be of 2 types Congenital Acquired- less common these days . Can be caused by Syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid, diphtheria, prolonged intubation SYMPTOMS Is severe presents with the first few hours after […]

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Definition It is the bleed in Subarachnoid space(The space between arachnoid and pia matter) Risk factors Intracranial aneurysms Trauma Vascular malformations (arteriovenous malformations) Moyamoya syndrome Coagulopathy Extension of intracerebral hematoma. Hypertension Polycystic kidneys Coarctation of aorta   Clinical Features Severe headache Nausea, vomiting Syncope Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies Seizures Lethargy Meningism Photophobia Neck […]

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This is a highly contagious exanthematous illness caused by the Varicella Zoster virus (herpes group) Clinical features The incubation period is approx 15 days This starts with mild fever and constitutional features like body ache, runny nose Skin features Centripetal distribution ( more over the chest/ back) Lesions occur as crops and appear simultaneously Lesions […]

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  This is subperiosteal haemorrhage due to rupture of blood vessels  most often due to a traumatic delivery Most commonly seen in the parietal or frontal bone area   Clinical features Swelling appears and increases over the days after birth This swelling can be unilateral just over the place of traumatic delivery The swelling is […]

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