Causes of Delayed closure of Anterior Fontanelle Rickets Congenital hypothyroidism Achondroplasia Hydrocephalus Downs syndrome Causes of bulging anterior fontanelle Increase intracranial pressure Hydrocephalus Crying infant Galactosemia Causes of high arched palate Downs syndrome Marfan syndrome Crouzon syndrome Apert syndrome Turners syndrome Causes of Frontal bone bossing Thalassemia major Rickets Congenital syphilis Hydrocephalus Acromegaly Causes of […]

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Ketotic process Fasting Malabsorption Gastroenteritis Galactosemia Hereditary fructose intolerance Glycogen storage disease type 1 Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia Nonketotic process Hyperinsulinemia Infants of diabetic mothers Congenital panhypopituitarism Adrenal insufficiency Fatty acid oxidation defects Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome Others Sepsis Poisoning Overdoses Liver failure HYPOGLYCEMIA WITH ACIDOSIS METABOLIC ACIDOSIS WITH HYPOGLYCEMIA IN INFANTS

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The tongue has both motor and sensory functions. You can always ask the child about taste sensations. For the motor function, ask the child to open the mouth and protrude the tongue. You can also ask the child to move the tongue from side to side to see the motor component If you are looking […]

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INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM The errors of IEM can be divided as a defect in the metabolism of Carbohydrates Amino acids Lipids Lysosomal storage disorders ~There are many more types of IEM with various classifications. The above mentioned are common and more focused in exams The IEM of lipids is further divided as ENZYME DEFECTS […]

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Features of Marfans syndrome It is a very common condition that can be presented in the musculoskeletal station You may be given the patient and asked to examine Look for the following clinical features Examination Kyphoscoliosis Anterior chest wall deformity- pectus excavation/ carinatum High arched palate Long slender fingers (Arachnodactyly) Cardiac findings- Mitral valve prolapse, […]

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Common changes in nails are Clubbing Koilonychia Onycholysis Abnormal colour like yellow, blue Nail bed changes Splinter haemorrhages Lines or bands- Beaus, Mees lines Clubbing It is the increase in the angle between the nail and the nail bed. Place the two index fingers of the patient against each other, look for the diamond shaped […]

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