Cyanosis can be seen in most examination cases. It is a grave mistake to miss such a finding. The advice below will help you answer questions. There are 2 types of cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis and central cyanosis Causes of peripheral cyanosis Exposure to cold Raynaud’s phenomenon Congestive cardiac failure Hyperviscosity syndrome Shock Causes of central […]

Read More →

Clubbing This is the swelling go the terminal part of fingers and toes It happens due to hypertrophy of the soft tissue in nail bed causing an increase in the anterior-posterior and transverse diameter of the nail Measurement It is measured by measuring the angle between the nail and nail bed  – Its called the […]

Read More →

It is the development of pulmonary hypertension due to reversal of blood flow from right side of heart to left The common causes are Ventricular septal defect Patent ductus arteriosus Atrial septal defect Signs and symptoms Cyanosis Clubbing Polycythemia Signs of right ventricular hypertrophy Loud P2 Ejection click and ejection systolic murmur due to pulmonary […]

Read More →

Causes of Left ventricular failure Acute myocardial infarction Systemic hypertension Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Mitral regurgitation Cardiomyopathy Coarctation of aorta Myocarditis Severe anemia Ventricular septal defect Causes of Right ventricular failure Chronic lung diseases Pulmonary stenosis Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary thromboembolism Cardiomyopathy Myocarditis Causes of Left atrial failure Mitral stenosis Left atrial myxoma Mitral atresia Causes […]

Read More →

S3 and S4 is not generally heard. Occasionally it can happen in the following conditions Causes of S3 Left of right ventricular failure Chronic Myocardial infarction Hyperkinetic circulation like severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis Dilated cardiomyopathy Causes of S4 Ischaemic heart disease Aortic stenosis Systemic hypertension Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Read More →

Pulsations can be felt at the following areas. Carotid pulsation Aortic regurgitation Aortic aneurysm Thyrotoxicosis Fever Anaemia Suprasternal notch pulsations Hyperkinetic states- anaemia Thyrotoxicosis, fever Aortic regurgitation Coarctation of aorta Aortic aneurysm Pulsation at pulmonary area Patent ductus arteriosus Atrial septal defect Ventricular septal defect Pulmonary hypertension Pulsation at Left parasternal area Ventricular septal defect […]

Read More →

These murmurs are non-organic and are caused due to the flow rather than any anatomical damage to the heart These disappear with age Characteristics Usually systolic Never beyond grade 2 No thrill Best heard over pulmonary area No radiation Changes with opposition Otherwise normal heart sounds, normal chest X Ray and ECG Examples of innocent […]

Read More →

Systolic murmurs Ejection systolic Starts after S1 and ends before S2 Conditions Aortic stenosis Pulmonary stenosis Atrial septal defect Pan systolic Starts with S1 and continues through S2 Conditions Mitral regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitations Ventricular septal defect Late systolic Mitral valve prolapse Papillary muscle dysfunction Diastolic murmurs Early diastolic Aortic regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation Mid diastolic Mitral […]

Read More →

Mitral area Systolic Myocardial infarction Ventricular septal defect Atrial septal defect Diastolic Mitral stenosis Left atrial myxoma Aortic area Aortic stenosis Diastolic thrill of Aortic regurgitation Pulmonary area Pulmonary stenosis Atrial septal defect High velocity Ventricular septal defect Tetralogy of Fallot Patent ductus arteriosus Tricuspid area Ventricular septal defect Tricuspid regurgitation Atrial septal defect Pulmonary […]

Read More →

It’s the area on the anterior chest wall which lies over the heart Variations During inspection of the chest wall look for the following variations. Bulging precordium This could mean chronic cardiac condition The common causes are- Ventricular Septal Defect Rheumatic heart disease Pericardial effusion Scoliosis Mediastinal tumours Left pleural effusion Flattening  precordium The chest […]

Read More →