Examination of the abdomen Inspection Shape Flanks Full or not Venous prominence Umbilicus Position- central/ to side Inverted/ everted Midway between xiphistertnum and pubis symphisis Venous prominence Hernia Granuloma Bluish discoloration around umbilicus Skin Ulcers Striae Pigmentation Scars Localised swelling Movement with respiration Pulsations Peristalsis Hernia sites Inguinal Emoral Umbilical Epigastric Incisional hernia Ask patient […]

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Alway start by looking around the room for any clues that the patient has bought- like medications   General examination- Level of consciousness- Alert/ Oriented/ cooperative Decubitus (position in bed) Gait Built- Average/ small or large for age Nutrition- Average/ undernutrition Dysmorphism   Face Eye  – Kayser- Fleischer Ring Skin- Pallor/ scars/ Telangiectasia / Incontinentia […]

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The two kidneys are palpated separately. It might be easier to palpate both the kidneys by standing on the right of the patient (in right-handed doctor) You can sit down if needed for your hands to be at the level with abdomen Now place your right hand over the exposed anterior abdomen at the right […]

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Palpating the spleen There are many ways to palpate the spleen. Stand to the right side of the patient Expose the abdomen from the ribcage to the pubis symphysis Method Place the palm of the right hand on the right iliac fossa and move upward and laterally towards the left hypochondrium Palpate all the way […]

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