E The tongue has both motor and sensory functions. You can always ask the child about taste sensations. For the motor function, Ask the child to open the mouth and protrude the tongue. You can also ask the child to move the tongue from side to side to see the motor component If you are […]

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There are 2 main variations that can be seen. Kyphosis and scoliosis Kyphosis is backward bending of the vertebral column Scoliosis is lateral bending of the vertebral column Common Causes Congenital Ankylosing spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis Rickets Neurofibromatosis Friedrich’s ataxia Cerebral palsy Marfan syndrome Turners syndrome Method to diagnose scoliosis Request the child to remove their […]

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Causes of Delayed closure of Anterior Fontanelle Rickets Congenital hypothyroidism Achondroplasia Hydrocephalus Downs syndrome Causes of bulging anterior fontanelle Increase intracranial pressure Hydrocephalus Crying infant Galactosemia Causes of high arched palate Downs syndrome Marfan syndrome Crouzon syndrome Apert syndrome Turners syndrome Causes of Frontal bone bossing Thalassemia major Rickets Congenital syphilis Hydrocephalus Acromegaly Causes of […]

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A hypotonic infant can be a typical case in neurology station. It is also likely to see one in your clinic The following points are mandatory Points to remember in Prenatal History: History of TORCH infections History of antenatal Drugs or alcohol Any Maternal illness Fetal movements- normal or hypoactive? Points in Neonatal History: Complications […]

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Features of Marfan syndrome It is a very common condition that can be presented in the musculoskeletal station You may be given the patient and asked to examine Look for the following clinical features Examination Kyphoscoliosis Anterior chest wall deformity- pectus excavation/ carinatum High arched palate Long slender fingers (Arachnodactyly) Cardiac findings- Mitral valve prolapse, […]

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Hypotonia Low muscle tone is a common finding. Remember the following points Causes of Hypotonia In newborns Anterior Horn cell disorders like Hypoxic-ischaemic myelopathy, Spinal muscular atrophy Congenital myelopathy like Charcot Marie Tooth disease Neuromuscular junction disorders like Congenital myasthenia Congenital myopathy like Nemaline myopathy Muscular dystrophy Syndromes- like Downs syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome, Hypothyroidism, […]

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Cyanosis can be seen in most examination cases. It is a grave mistake to miss such a finding. The advice below will help you answer questions. There are 2 types of cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis and central cyanosis Causes of peripheral cyanosis Exposure to cold Raynaud’s phenomenon Congestive cardiac failure Hyperviscosity syndrome Shock Causes of central […]

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Clubbing This is the swelling go the terminal part of fingers and toes It happens due to hypertrophy of the soft tissue in nail bed causing an increase in the anterior-posterior and transverse diameter of the nail Measurement It is measured by measuring the angle between the nail and nail bed  – Its called the […]

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Hypotonia Speech Dysarthria and slowing of speech with slurring and stuttering Knee jerk The knee jerk is pendular and on elicitation of the reflew, there are more than 3 pendular movements Tremor The child may have intentional tremor. Finger test can show this effect Dysmetria On finger nose finger test, the child may overestimate the […]

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The two kidneys are palpated separately. It might be easier to palpate both the kidneys by standing on the right of the patient (in right-handed doctor) You can sit down if needed for your hands to be at the level with abdomen Now place your right hand over the exposed anterior abdomen at the right […]

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