It is the narrowing of the subglottic airway due to the malformed cricoid cartilage

It is the most common congenital laryngeal abnormality

It can be of 2 types

  1. Congenital
  2. Acquired- less common these days . Can be caused by Syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid, diphtheria, prolonged intubation


  • Is severe presents with the first few hours after birth with ‘stridor’
  • The stridor can be inspiratory, biphasic and may present with laboured breathing. This can become more prominent if an inflammatory process is present like Upper respiratory infection
  • The symptoms are recurrent and prolonged
  • Child may have a hoarse or weak voice
  • In milder cases, it may be asymptomatic all the which and would be discoverable only if if there is a need to intubate the child.


  • Milder cases resolve spontaneously as the child grows
  • Repeated episodes of respiratory distress especially with upper respiratory tract infections may need ENT referral
  • Treatment includes endoscopic procedures or open reconstructive procedures.


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