It is the narrowing of the subglottic airway due to the malformed cricoid cartilage
It is the most common congenital laryngeal abnormality
It can be of 2 types
- Acquired- less common these days . Can be caused by Syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid, diphtheria, prolonged intubation
- Is severe presents with the first few hours after birth with ‘stridor’
- The stridor can be inspiratory, biphasic and may present with laboured breathing. This can become more prominent if an inflammatory process is present like Upper respiratory infection
- The symptoms are recurrent and prolonged
- Child may have a hoarse or weak voice
- In milder cases, it may be asymptomatic all the which and would be discoverable only if if there is a need to intubate the child.
- Milder cases resolve spontaneously as the child grows
- Repeated episodes of respiratory distress especially with upper respiratory tract infections may need ENT referral
- Treatment includes endoscopic procedures or open reconstructive procedures.