This is a benign birthmark due to a collection of melanocytes at the site. Features Flat bluish- blackish discolouration This fates generally over years ( 5-6 years) Location Most common over the lower back, buttock Treatment No treatment is required as it resolves spontaneously. Make sure you document it for further records. Remember Accidental […]

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Herpes simplex infection of the baby occurs during birth. It is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV.  Aetiology HSV type 1- in 20% of cases.  HSV type 2- in 80% of cases Clinical features Localised skin, mouth, eye infection in 30% of cases Skin infections Group vesicles, pustules […]

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It is a self-limiting disorder of healthy newborns. Cause Hypoxia during delivery Post-trauma Hypothermia Calcium derangement Features Well circumscribed and indurated lesions The surface may look uneven and lobulated Lesions are usually asymptomatic or mildly painful Most common locations – back, buttock, cheeks Duration May last a few weeks to months Investigations Blood may show […]

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ERYTHEMA TOXICUM NEONATORUM Benign, self-limiting raised erythematous rash over the body of the newborn It is an allergic response   Features Ivory coloured papules surrounded by erythema Confluent lesions Pustules may be present Generally Starts from 2nd to 4th day of  life Involves all chest, face, back Lasts up to 2- 3 weeks   Investigations […]

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Normal platelet count is 150,000 to 450, 000 cells per microlitre Thrombocytopenia is < 150,000 cells/ microliter Causes  Reduced production Congenital Thrombocytopenia and absent radius syndrome Fanconi anaemia Wiskott Aldrich syndrome Aplastic anaemia   Decreased platelet survival Immune-mediated thrombocytopenic purpura Neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia Alloimmune neonatal thrombocytopenia Neonatal ITP Infections Drug-induced thrombocytopenia Autoimmune conditions Malignancy Non-immune-mediated […]

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Characterized by   Inattentiveness Impulsiveness Hyperactivity   Age of onset: Before age 7   DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Age-appropriate overactivity Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) Mental retardation Mood disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Hearing-impairment   Lead toxicity Hyperthyroidism   CLINICAL FEATURES (DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.)* Inattentiveness Difficulty to carry out instructions Difficulty sustaining attention  Does […]

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Eggs are passed in the feces of infected individuals     CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. Pulmonary ascariasis – Cough with blood-stained sputum Eosinophilia. Abdominal pain/ Intestinal obstruction  Steatorrhea and diminished vitamin A absorption   DIAGNOSIS. Fecal smear examination- to look for eggs X ray for abdominal conditions   TREATMENT. Albendazole (400 mg PO as a single dose). Or […]

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Commonly seen in Rheumatic cardiac disease PATHOLOGY Volume overload on the left ventricle Dilatation and hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Combined mitral and aortic insufficiency are more common than aortic involvement alone.   CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. Palpitations.   Excessive sweating Dyspnoea on exertion Orthopnea Pulmonary oedema angina   SIGNS Pulse pressure is wide   Bounding peripheral […]

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