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There are 2 main variations that can be seen.

Kyphosis and scoliosis

  • Kyphosis is backward bending of the vertebral column
  • Scoliosis is lateral bending of the vertebral column

Common Causes

  • Congenital
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rickets
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Friedrich’s ataxia
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Marfans syndrome
  • Turners syndrome

Method to diagnose scoliosis

  • Request the child to remove their shirt (if allowed). Get them to stand straight with both hands on either side of their hips.
  • Look for any curvature from the back,
  • You can palpate the spine to confirm

Method to diagnose Kyphosis

  • Look at the child from the side (laterally).
  • You might notice an increase in anteroposterior distance

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