Dyspnoea

  • Uncomfortable awareness of breathing

Tachypnoea

  • Rapid breathing
  • Seen in anxiety, fever, heart failure, acidosis

Hyperventilation

  • Increased depth of ventilation
  • Seen in anxiety, Metabolic acidosis, infections

Bradypnea

  • Slow breathing rate

Orthopnoea

  • Breathless on lying down
  • Seen in heart failure, asthma, pleural effusion

Cheyne Stokes respiration

  • Periods of rapid breathing and periods of pause
  • Each phase lasting generally beyond 30 seconds

Gasping

  • Deep irregularly breaths

Kussmaul’s

  • Deep laboured breathing generally seen with metabolic acidosis
  • Seen in Diabetic ketoacidosis, Uremia

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