Quick assessment of level of lesion

When you are presented with a CNS case, a quick look at the movements of the patient can guide you to the site of lesion. Look below for the nerve supply for different areas of the body Upper body C1 to C6- Neck flexionC1 to T1- Neck extensionC3 to C5- Supply to diaphragmC5 to C6- […]

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Types of weakness

Monoplegia This is weakness of one limb when compared to the other. Always check the normal limb and then immediately check corresponding other limb Upper limb monoplegia Multiple sclerosis Encephalitis Poliomyelitis Mononeuropathy Brachial plexus lesion Lower limb monoplegia Multiple sclerosis Cauda equina syndrome Sciatic nerve palsy Prolapsed vertebral disc Hemiplegia This is the weakness of […]

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What is ‘Vocal resonance’

It is auscultating the patients chest in different fields hen the child speaks Method Ask the patient to repeat words like ‘Ninety Nine’ continuously in the same tone and voice depth No auscultate the lung in different area like upper lobe, middle lobe and lower lobe. Auscultate the same areas simultaneously, i.e once on the […]

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Wheeze and Stridor

Differentiating different respiratory sounds can be asked in clinical exams Wheeze is the high pitch musical sound heard Characters Mostly heard in expiratory phase of respiration Indicates small airway obstruction Conditions Asthma Bronchitis Tropical eosinophilia Stridor This is a harsh hoarse sound which is low pitched Features Better heard in Inspiratory phase Indicates large airways […]

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Types of breathing

Dyspnoea Uncomfortable awareness of breathing Tachypnoea Rapid breathing Seen in anxiety, fever, heart failure, acidosis Hyperventilation Increased depth of ventilation Seen in anxiety, Metabolic acidosis, infections Bradypnea Slow breathing rate Orthopnoea Breathless on lying down Seen in heart failure, asthma, pleural effusion Cheyne Stokes respiration Periods of rapid breathing and periods of pause Each phase […]

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Examination of Central nervous system

This is one of the few feared ares in medicine. It is easier to remember if you make sure you write this below format repeatedly and use it every time you examine a patient Below is a brief note of headings for easy revision in exams. For detailed examination, look into individual articles. Look around […]

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Tracheal position

The tracheal position also indicates the apex beat position. The normal position of trachea is slight deviation towards the right Methods to examine tracheal position. Method 1 Stand in front of the patient. Make sure the patient is sitting or standing and never lying down Gently palpate the cricoid cartilage with your finger and run […]

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Types of cough

There are various types of cough, based on the type one can suspect the underlying conditions. These can be discussed in exams as well Dry cough Acute pleurisy Croup Wet cough Bronchiectasis Lung abscess Lobar pneumonia Brassy cough Laryngeal carcinoma Spluttering cough Tracheoesophageal fistula Barking cough Epiglottitis Foul smelling cough Bronchiectasis Lung abscess

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Lung percussion sounds

Tympanic note Pneumothorax Emphysematous bulla Subpleural lung cyst Left sided hiatus hernia Hyperresonant note Emphysema Lung cysts Impaired (Diminished) note Thick pleura Lung fibrosis Lung collapse Lung tumors Consolidation of lung Early pleural effusion Dull note Consolidation Pleural effusion Empyema

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Restricted chest movement causes

Unilateral restriction Pleural effusion Chest trauma Pleurisy Pneumothorax Collapse of lung Fibrosis to lung Thickened pleura Lung consolidation Bilateral restriction Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Weak respiratory muscles Ankylosing spondylitis

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