Unilateral restriction

  1. Pleural effusion
  2. Chest trauma
  3. Pleurisy
  4. Pneumothorax
  5. Collapse of lung
  6. Fibrosis to lung
  7. Thickened pleura
  8. Lung consolidation

Bilateral restriction

  1. Emphysema
  2. Interstitial fibrosis
  3. Weak respiratory muscles
  4. Ankylosing spondylitis

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