Oxygen is a common practice in sick children. It is very important to remember that oxygen is now considered as a drug and it needs to be prescribed by a doctor before it is administered Like any Drug, excess of this can cause side effects to the patient and hence it needs to be used […]

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Taking aspirate samples from nasopharyngeal region is important for investigation purposes The normal procedure is as below Method This procedure should be done before feeding so to reduce false organisms It is very important to make sure that there are resuscitation items like oxygen and bag and mask in case the child goes into apnea […]

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This is an non invasive method to monitor the capillary oxygen levels from the periphery of body This is always expressed as percentage. These are arbitrary numbers which should always be used in conjunction of the clinical presentation of the child Sites used Finger tips Toe Earlobe Method Pulse oximetry sensor consists of a red […]

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Many of expectant mothers wonder about the ‘dos’ and don’ts’ in pregnancy regarding eating. The aim is to take adequate calories with variety of vitamins and minerals naturally. There are various phases in pregnancy where the requirements vary. For example in early  pregnancy certain vitamins are important and in later pregnancy, calories and protein become […]

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E The tongue has both motor and sensory functions. You can always ask the child about taste sensations. For the motor function, Ask the child to open the mouth and protrude the tongue. You can also ask the child to move the tongue from side to side to see the motor component If you are […]

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There are 2 main variations that can be seen. Kyphosis and scoliosis Kyphosis is backward bending of the vertebral column Scoliosis is lateral bending of the vertebral column Common Causes Congenital Ankylosing spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis Rickets Neurofibromatosis Friedrich’s ataxia Cerebral palsy Marfan syndrome Turners syndrome Method to diagnose scoliosis Request the child to remove their […]

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Causes of Delayed closure of Anterior Fontanelle Rickets Congenital hypothyroidism Achondroplasia Hydrocephalus Downs syndrome Causes of bulging anterior fontanelle Increase intracranial pressure Hydrocephalus Crying infant Galactosemia Causes of high arched palate Downs syndrome Marfan syndrome Crouzon syndrome Apert syndrome Turners syndrome Causes of Frontal bone bossing Thalassemia major Rickets Congenital syphilis Hydrocephalus Acromegaly Causes of […]

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Sensations carried by Spinal tracts. There are three major sensory tracts The posterior column tract The spinothalamic tract The spinocerebellar tract The spinothalamic tract This is also called the ‘Lateral Tract’. These carry the following sensations Pain Temperature Crude touch The Posterior tract It carries the following sensations Vibration Position Pressure Proprioception Fine touch The […]

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A hypotonic infant can be a typical case in neurology station. It is also likely to see one in your clinic The following points are mandatory Points to remember in Prenatal History: History of TORCH infections History of antenatal Drugs or alcohol Any Maternal illness Fetal movements- normal or hypoactive? Points in Neonatal History: Complications […]

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Features of Marfan syndrome It is a very common condition that can be presented in the musculoskeletal station You may be given the patient and asked to examine Look for the following clinical features Examination Kyphoscoliosis Anterior chest wall deformity- pectus excavation/ carinatum High arched palate Long slender fingers (Arachnodactyly) Cardiac findings- Mitral valve prolapse, […]

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