INTRODUCTION Refers to pain in abdomen severe enough to interfere with normal daily activities. This is a diagnosis when all other serious conditions are excluded. Called migraine after it was noticed to be common in families suffering from either an abdominal or head migraine. Children with an abdominal migraine have the tendency to develop a […]

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  ACNE Can occur in infants and during puberty. Most babies do not need any treatment. It gets better over 6 months time. If any s/o infections or suspicion in a baby, do a swab for culture/ sensitivity and start oral flucloxacillin ( or clarithromycin if allergic) for a week   MANAGEMENT Early treatment helps […]

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CAUSES   INVESTIGATIONS Complete blood count/ coagulation studies Liver/ kidney function tests Urine analysis Amylase/ lipase Calprotectin (IBD) / Beta HcG ESR/ CRP Chest / Abdominal X-ray Ultrasound (obstruction/ free air/ kidney and Gallstones)   MANAGEMENT Nil orally Analgesics/ Antibiotics Surgical/ Gynaecological/ GI evaluation    

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Features Constant Peri umbilical pain changing to Right Lower Quadrant pain Localised abdominal tenderness/ Rovsing (rebound tenderness) PAEDIATRIC APPENDICITS SCORE     Scores> 8 ( could suggest appendicitis) Investigations Complete blood count/ urine analysis Amylase/ Liver enzymes C reactive Protein Amyloid A protein Abdomen X-ray Ultrasound Treatment Fluid resuscitation (Airway/ breathing/ Circulation) Antibiotics – Unperforated […]

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FEATURES/ DEFINITION Apnoea Colour change Abnormal tone Choking DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS- * from Dewolfe CC: review Pediatr clin north Am-2005 HISTORY Description of event/Duration Awake or asleep Position (prone, supine, side) Location (crib, bed) Bedclothes, blankets, pillows Activity at the time: feeding/coughing/gagging/choking/vomiting Breathing efforts Colour: Pallor/Central or Peripheral cyanosis. Abnormal Movement or tone Observations – a […]

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Are nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue consisting primarily of B cells Encircles pharynx and includes the lingual tonsil, faucial tonsils, adenoids, and lymphoid tissue on the posterior pharyngeal wall   Hypertrophy features Age of onset: usually >2 years of age      CLINICAL FEATURES: Mouth breathing Foul smell from the mouth Snoring   Obstructive sleep apnea Rarely […]

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RISK FACTORS Congenital Adrenal hyperplasia Hypopituitarism on replacement therapy Prolonged steroid therapy or sudden withdrawal of treatment Dehydration Infection/ physical stress Injury to the adrenal or pituitary gland Surgery/ Trauma SYMPTOMS Abdominal pain Altered consciousness Dehydration/ Fatigue Fever/ Headache Low blood pressure Nausea/ vomiting Tachycardia/ Tachypnea FEATURES a) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Dehydration Hyperkalaemia Hyponatraemia Pre renal […]

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DIAGNOSIS OF ANAPHYLAXIS* Fulfil 1 of 3 criteria 1-Acute onset with involvement of skin/ mucous membrane AND one of below a-Respiratory symptom( wheeze/ stridor) b-End organ dysfunction( Hypotension/ syncope) 2- Two or more of following a- Involvement of skin/ mucous membrane b-Respiratory dysfunction c-Gastrointestinal symptoms d-End organ dysfunction 3- Reduced BP Infants < systolic BP […]

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CAUSE Forced abduction and external rotation of the shoulder Common in young adults from sports or road accidents Can be recurrent   APPEARANCE Slight abduction Appears square with prominent ‘ Acromion’   COMPLICATIONS Axillary nerve damage- Look for sensory loss over the upper lateral part of upper arm Damage to posterior cord of brachial plexus- […]

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Commonly seen in Rheumatic cardiac disease PATHOLOGY Volume overload on the left ventricle Dilatation and hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Combined mitral and aortic insufficiency are more common than aortic involvement alone.   CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. Palpitations.   Excessive sweating Dyspnoea on exertion Orthopnea Pulmonary oedema angina   SIGNS Pulse pressure is wide   Bounding peripheral […]

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