Allergic reaction (Urticaria)   Identifying an Allergic reaction: Generally appears as a red lesion on the skin, the skin is raised by a few millimetres and is very itchy. Run your fingers gently along the lesion to confirm an allergic reaction. Itching is a common occurrence during an allergic reaction but not always. Itching could […]

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Anaemia is the condition with reduced Red cells in the body.   SYMPTOMS Depends on many factors Age of child Severity of anaemia Other associated conditions- ex. Heart problems Fast heart rate(to compensate low haemoglobin) Fatigue/ Weakness( because heart is beating fast) Pale( because of low red cells) Yellowish skin( if red cells are breaking, […]

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DIAGNOSIS OF ANAPHYLAXIS* Fulfil 1 of 3 criteria 1-Acute onset with involvement of skin/ mucous membrane AND one of below a-Respiratory symptom( wheeze/ stridor) b-End organ dysfunction( Hypotension/ syncope) 2- Two or more of following a- Involvement of skin/ mucous membrane b-Respiratory dysfunction c-Gastrointestinal symptoms d-End organ dysfunction 3- Reduced BP Infants < systolic BP […]

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CAUSE Forced abduction and external rotation of the shoulder Common in young adults from sports or road accidents Can be recurrent   APPEARANCE Slight abduction Appears square with prominent ‘ Acromion’   COMPLICATIONS Axillary nerve damage- Look for sensory loss over the upper lateral part of upper arm Damage to posterior cord of brachial plexus- […]

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Commonly seen in Rheumatic cardiac disease PATHOLOGY Volume overload on the left ventricle Dilatation and hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Combined mitral and aortic insufficiency are more common than aortic involvement alone.   CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. Palpitations.   Excessive sweating Dyspnoea on exertion Orthopnea Pulmonary oedema angina   SIGNS Pulse pressure is wide   Bounding peripheral […]

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What is Appendix? The appendix is a small pouch-like organ measuring a few inches that are attached to the intestine. Some believe it to be a vestigial organ( accessory pouch ) It briefly has no function and sometimes it gets infected( hence it is removed in severe infections) Location- Right side of the abdomen (towards the […]

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Eggs are passed in the feces of infected individuals     CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. Pulmonary ascariasis – Cough with blood-stained sputum Eosinophilia. Abdominal pain/ Intestinal obstruction  Steatorrhea and diminished vitamin A absorption   DIAGNOSIS. Fecal smear examination- to look for eggs X ray for abdominal conditions   TREATMENT. Albendazole (400 mg PO as a single dose). Or […]

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GUILLAIN BARRE SYNDROME This is a paralytic disease seen generally after an infection( generally post-viral infection) Most times involving the Motor system( Movement ) This is also called ‘Ascending paralysis’ as the paralysis ascends from feet upwards over the days. Most symptoms start a week after a viral infection. Generally, a diarrhoea bug or throat […]

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INTRODUCTION Is an allergic respiratory condition. There is difficulty in breathing out( Imagine blowing through a straw- the narrower it gets, the more difficult it becomes.) Generally runs in family. There is a history of parents or grandparents with a wheeze. CLINICAL PRESENTATION Breathless/ fast short breaths A cough Wheeze( can present as sound-like blowing […]

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Characterized by   Inattentiveness Impulsiveness Hyperactivity   Age of onset: Before age 7   DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Age-appropriate overactivity Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) Mental retardation Mood disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Hearing-impairment   Lead toxicity Hyperthyroidism   CLINICAL FEATURES (DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.)* Inattentiveness Difficulty to carry out instructions Difficulty sustaining attention  Does […]

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